Consult the Modern Treaties – Comprehensive Land Claims and Self-Government Agreements map for more information on the modern treaties in force in Canada to date, and consult the Aboriginal and Contractual Rights Information System for more information on each agreement, including the full text of the agreement and summary information. Use the name of the Indigenous group, the name of the agreement, or another term as the „keyword“ search term, and then click the Contracts and Agreements heading above the search box to find related documents. As a central provision of numbered treaties, and where there were no treaties as political initiatives of the federal government, isolated enclaves were created, called Indian reserves, to accommodate Indigenous peoples. The reserve system, as it was from the middle to the end of the 19th century. It was designed only as a temporary measure and provided closed places where missionaries and agents of the state could indoctrinate the Aboriginal population in the economic, political, religious and social behaviour acceptable to the settlers of Canada. The reserves offered residents a kind of refuge from the various forms of discrimination they faced in the outside world, but for policymakers and Church leaders, they were reform laboratories where residents could be observed and judged, and where „Indianism“ could be directed, regulated, or forced by Indigenous peoples.  On these fragments of ancestral territories, the indigenous inhabitants had only the right to occupy. Property and title deeds remained in Canadian hands. Although other treaties were concluded in 1778 and 1779, these treaties reaffirmed peace after some communities supported American revolutionary forces. In Connecticut, Massachusetts, and Rhode Island, settlers understood these treaties as a land transfer.
The agreements were written on paper and contained legal language in which the land sold was surrounded. However, Indigenous peoples probably understood these agreements differently. Contracts are agreements between the Canadian government, Indigenous groups and, often, provinces and territories that define the ongoing rights and obligations of all parties. Regardless of the initial size of the reserves, even those small areas that remained with indigenous peoples were often threatened. Although the federal government limited the ability of reserve communities to administer the lands on which they lived, Canadian officials were more than willing to dispose of reserve lands themselves to meet settler demand for mineral, forest or agricultural land; for the construction of transport routes or military sites; or for various other purposes. Although often, but not always, some sort of Indigenous agreement has been sought, this consent has been regularly sought in dubious circumstances at best. In addition, the sale of reserve lands has always been described as being in the long-term interest of reserve communities, even though it was railway and corporate managers and other members of the settler elite – including the Department of Indian Affairs (DIA) and other officials – who came into possession of the alienated reserve lands in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.  Some of these land sales are still subject to land claims and legal challenges.
The parti québécois government`s provincial elections (1994) and the referendum on Quebec sovereignty (1995) highlighted conventional issues in a debate over the division of the province in the event of a declaration of independence. One of the main participants was Matthew Coon Come, Grand Chief of the Cree (of Quebec). In a Cree referendum during the referendum on Quebec sovereignty, 96.3% of Chief Coon Come`s population voted to maintain its alliance with Canada even though Quebec declared its independence. .